String Functions

Note

These functions assume that the input strings contain valid UTF-8 encoded Unicode code points. There are no explicit checks for valid UTF-8 and the functions may return incorrect results on invalid UTF-8.

Additionally, the functions operate on Unicode code points and not user visible characters (or grapheme clusters). Some languages combine multiple code points into a single user-perceived character, the basic unit of a writing system for a language, but the functions will treat each code point as a separate unit.

The lower() and upper() functions do not perform locale-sensitive, context-sensitive, or one-to-many mappings required for some languages. Specifically, this will return incorrect results for Lithuanian, Turkish and Azeri.

chr(n) varchar

Returns the Unicode code point n as a single character string.

codepoint(string) integer

Returns the Unicode code point of the only character of string.

concat(string1, ..., stringN) varchar

Returns the concatenation of string1, string2, ..., stringN. This function provides the same functionality as the SQL-standard concatenation operator (||).

length(string) bigint

Returns the length of string in characters.

lower(string) varchar

Converts string to lowercase.

lpad(string, size, padstring) varchar

Left pads string to size characters with padstring. If size is less than the length of string, the result is truncated to size characters. size must not be negative and padstring must be non-empty.

ltrim(string) varchar

Removes leading whitespace from string.

replace(string, search) varchar

Removes all instances of search from string.

replace(string, search, replace) varchar

Replaces all instances of search with replace in string.

If search is an empty string, inserts replace in front of every character and at the end of the string.

reverse(string) varchar

Reverses string.

rpad(string, size, padstring) varchar

Right pads string to size characters with padstring. If size is less than the length of string, the result is truncated to size characters. size must not be negative and padstring must be non-empty.

rtrim(string) varchar

Removes trailing whitespace from string.

split(string, delimiter)

Splits string on delimiter and returns an array.

split(string, delimiter, limit)

Splits string on delimiter and returns an array of size at most limit.

The last element in the array always contains everything left in the string. limit must be a positive number.

split_part(string, delimiter, index) string

Splits string on delimiter and returns the part at index index.

Field indexes start with 1. If the index is larger than the number of fields, then null is returned.

strpos(string, substring) bigint

Returns the starting position of the first instance of substring in string. Positions start with 1. If not found, 0 is returned.

strpos(string, substring, instance) bigint

Returns the position of the N-th instance of substring in string. instance must be a positive number. Positions start with 1. If not found, 0 is returned.

substr(string, start) varchar

Returns the rest of string from the starting position start. Positions start with 1. A negative starting position is interpreted as being relative to the end of the string.

substr(string, start, length) varchar

Returns a substring from string of length length from the starting position start. Positions start with 1. A negative starting position is interpreted as being relative to the end of the string.

trim(string) varchar

Removes starting and ending whitespaces from string.

upper(string) varchar

Converts string to uppercase.

Unicode Functions

to_utf8(string) varbinary

Encodes string into a UTF-8 varbinary representation.